A Hematoma is the result of trauma to the nail plate. It can happen from simply trapping your finger or toe in the car door to friction from improperly fitting or ‘too-tight’ shoes, to a sports-related injury. A hammer does a pretty good job at causing a hematoma as well! The nail bed will bleed due to this trauma, and the blood is trapped between the nail bed and the nail plate. A hematoma may also indicate a fractured bone.  Many people who participate in sports activities experience hematoma because of the constant friction from the shoes against the toenails. Hematoma may result in nail plate separation and infection because the blood can attract fungi and bacteria.

Subungual Hematoma Treatment
Self-Care at Home
Ice, elevation (keeping your arm or leg above the level of your heart), and anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), are recommended for minor hematomas. Wrap ice in a towel and do not apply ice directly to skin. A bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in a towel works well.
If the hematoma involves more than 25% of the area of the nail, then medical attention is needed.
If the nail was removed by the injury or the doctor and the nailbed wasn’t cut, the following home treatment is recommended until the nailbed begins to be less sensitive, usually in 7-10 days.
Twice daily soaks with antibacterial soap and water for 10-15 minutes
After soaks, application of a topical antibiotic ointment (such as Neosporin) and a dry sterile bandage (Band-Aid)

Medical Treatment
Several techniques are used to drain the blood beneath the nail. This procedure is also called releasing the hematoma.
No single technique is preferred.
How your hematoma is drained depends on the experience of the doctor and where it is done.
Frequently, the finger or toe is numbed with a digital block. (Your fingers and toes are called digits.)
A numbing medication such as lidocaine is injected at the bottom of your finger or toe.
Injecting the medication here numbs the entire digit.
As soon as your finger or toe is numb, the procedure can take place.

The following are commonly used methods for draining your hematoma:
Cautery: A battery-operated device is used to burn a hole in the nail until the blood is reached and drains out the hole.
Needle: A large diameter needle is used to drill or bore into the nail to create a hole to allow the blood to drain out.
Paper clip: This technique, although an older one, is still used by some practitioners. A paper clip is opened so that the pointed end is free. Then the pointed end is heated up, usually by passing it through a flame, and used to burn through the nail. This technique uses a combination of the cautery method and the needle method.

Onychoshizia or splitting of the fingernails is one of the most common evils that the dermatologist sees. The usual cause is frequent wetting and aeration of the fingernails. This makes them dry and delicate. This is often inferior in low humidity and in the winter (dry heat). The term onychoschizia consist of splitting, frail, soft or thin nails and nails with ridges. Onychoschizia is more widespread in women. Every day filing of snags or abnormality helps to prevent further breakage or splitting. Avoid metal instruments on the nail exterior to push back the cuticle. If the nails are “”buffed”” do this in the similar trend as the nail grows and not in a “”back and forth”” motion because this can induce nail splitting. Nail splitting is perceived more often in women and older individuals.

Causes of Onychoschizia
Some causes & risk factors of Onychoschizia are as follows:
* Repetitive and extended wetting and drying of the fingernails.
* Internal disease or vitamin insufficiency.
* Injury (trauma).
* People among other skin diseases, for instance lichen planus and psoriasis, as well as people taking oral medications made from vitamin A, may also increase nail splitting.
* Nail polish remover.

Symptoms of Onychoschizia
The possible symptoms of Onychoschizia includes:
* Nail splitting involve the fingernails and the toenails.
* The condition may emerge as a single horizontal split among layers of the nail plate at the growing end or as multiple splits and loosening of the growing edge of the nail plate.

Treatments of Onychoschizia
The best cure is to avoid recurring wetting and drying of the nails. Use a lotion including alpha-hydroxy acids for instance Neostrata. Maintain nails short, do not strip or scrape off nail polish. Try to carry cotton lined rubber gloves when performing household chores that occupy getting the hands wet. Nail-hardening agents containing formaldehyde may enlarge nail strength, but they should be used vigilantly, as they can cause brittleness and other nail problems. Concern these hardeners only to the liberated edge (growing end) of the nail. Taking colloidal minerals and a multivitamin every day has been revealed to increase the speed of nail growth which in turn leads to healthier nails. Nail polish can defend the nail surface. Nail polishes with nylon fibers in them may append strength and protection to fragile nails. Apply nail polish remover as rarely as probable because it dries out the nails. Biotin (a vitamin) taken by mouth is useful.

Onychotillomania is an uncontrollable desire to pick or tear the nails, usually a manifestation of a compulsion neurosis. It is similar to, but to be differentiated from, onychophagia, the habit of biting the free edge of the nails. Either may result in pronounced nail deformities. The treatment of onychotillomania consists in psychotherapy and the application of occlusive dressings. A fairly extensive review of the literature in English fails to disclose a single recorded case of this disease. In the German literature, Alkiewicz1 refers to the condition.

Frequent application of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their finger nails. Possible alternatives include:
* 1% clindamycin.
* quaternary ammonium derivatives.
* 4% quinine sulphate in petrolatum.
Patients with severe onychophagia or median nail dystrophy can be helped by daily bandaging the injured fingers with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine at high dosages (60 mg/day) can be helpful in interrupting this compulsive disorder in adults.off.

Leukonychia is a kind of nail disease and the term is taken from the Greek term Leuko that means white and the term Onyx, that means nails. Leukonychia is such a disease of nail that causes partial or complete discoloration of the nails. Basically, Leukonychia is a hereditary problem.
This nail disease changes the natural color of your nails. This condition is actually characterized by staining of the entire nail white.

Causes of Leukonychia:
The commonest cause of the nail disorder, called Leukonychia is the injury to the base of the nail where the nail is formed. This area is referred to as the matrix region. A white spotting may appear on the nails similar to a streaking effect. Other probable causes for this discoloration are arsenic poisoning, heart disease, renal failure, pneumonia, ill health, vitamin deficiency or hypoalbuminemia.

Symptoms of Leukonychia:
White spots or streaks appearing on the surface of the nails are termed as symptoms of Leukonychia, a nail disorder. The most common reason for these white spots are mild trauma, like hitting or slamming your fingernail on or into something.

Persons at Risk of Leukonychia:
* Persons using nail enamels, nail hardeners, or artificial nails may develop these white spots or streaks as a result of an allergic reaction to the product since these can cause nail fragility and very fine splitting or layering of the nail plate, which may result in whitish spots.
* Persons frequenting gyms and beauty saloons are at greater risk of developing Leukonychia since these white spots can be easily picked up at the gym or during a manicure session, because it can be a fungal, yeast, or bacterial infection. This nail infection attacks the substance of the nail directly and leaves a whitish streak or spot behind.
* If one gets timely medical attention, Leukonychia can be controlled and treated. Generally doctors take the scrapings of nail tissue for fungal and bacterial cultures and discover if the culprit is a pesky organism causing the spots. Upon final testing, the doctor may prescribe both topical and oral therapies to help clear up this problem, which may take a few weeks.

Treatment and Prevention of Leukonychia:
Usually the white marks caused by Leukonychia disappear on their own, when the nails will grow outwards. However, this may take up to eight months for the new nail to completely grow out. The only prevention one can take to prevent Leukonychia is to reduce possibilities of minor injury to the nails so the white marks do not occur.
* A temporary measure to treat Leukonychia is to use nail polish on the affected nails to hide these white marks for a special occasion, but care should be taken to not overdo this since frequent nail polishing can worsen the condition by causing allergic reaction in the surrounding skin and damage the nails.
* Improving the diet to internalize the treatment for Leukonychia will prevent its occurrence if an individual eats a balanced diet full of green leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts to do away with any deficiency of zinc in the body – which is associated with the appearance of white spots.

Brittle Nails are characterized by a vertical splitting or separation of the nail plate layers at the distal (free) edge of the nail plate. In most cases, nail splitting and vertical ridges are characteristic of the natural aging process. This nail problem is also the result of overexposure to water and chemical solvents such as household cleaning solutions. As we age, the nail bed’s natural flow of oils and moisture is greatly reduced. This oil and moisture is the cement that holds the nail plate layers together and gives the plate its inherent flexibility.

Brittle or weak nails is a common nail related problem faced by people of all ages. There are a number of factors that can contribute to the nails turning brittle and weak, peeling and chipping off frequently. Having brittle nails and toenails would mean that the structure of the nail is faulty which causes it to break or peel off horizontally or lengthwise. Brittle nails can affect fingernails as well as toenails. Also, more women are prone to developing brittle nails than men. Medically, this condition of the nail is known as onychoschizia and mild brittle nail problems may not require any medical treatment. However, if brittle nails are not cared for and looked after appropriately, they may lead to other nail related problems and brittle nails treatment will also be required. Read more on fingernail disorders.

Brittle Nail Causes
Brittle nails can be caused due to various reasons like trauma to the nails, exposure to cleaning products like detergents and dish washing liquids, frequent exposure to water and excessive use of harsh chemical nail products like fingernail polish removers and nail polishes. It may also be caused due to certain medical conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dehydration, lichen planus and alopecia arcata. A deficiency of essential nutrients and minerals like iron, zinc, vitamins and calcium can also cause the nails to turn brittle and weak. Read more on causes of weak nails and why do fingernails peel.

Treatment of Brittle Nails
Wondering how to cure brittle nails? Well, there are a number of methods that you can adopt as treatment for brittle nails. The most common course of treatment that you could opt for strengthening brittle nails is dietary supplementation. Include vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc, niacin, calcium and iron supplements in your diet. The recommended daily dose of biotin to cure brittle nails is 2.5mg which can be obtained from the consumption of a glass of soy milk along with barley or corn. Treatment and cure of the medical condition causing brittle nails will also help cure the condition. Read more on vitamins for healthy nails.

Brittle Nails Remedy
The best known remedy for brittle nails is to moisturize the fingernails and toenails regularly. You can either apply a moisturizer directly onto the nails or soak your nails in essential oils for around 20 minutes daily. Another brittle nails remedy would be to protect your hand and fingernails by wearing gloves while working with water, harsh chemicals and cleaning agents. This will protect the nails from being exposed to the chemicals which can make it brittle or weak. Also, restrict the use of nail polishes and nail polish removers. It would be best to leave the nails free of nail polish as and when possible to allow them to breathe and grow.

Nail Care Recipes for Brittle Nails
The following are a few simple recipes and home remedies that can help care for your nails and at the same time prevent wear and tear of nails that are brittle.
Soak you nails in a bowl of warm almond oil or olive for half an hour daily. Do not wash your fingers but gently massage the oil into your fingernails. Practice this on a daily basis to cure brittle nails.
Apply a mixture of honey and lemon to your brittle fingernails and toenails. Massage this mixture into the nail and do not wash it off. This is a good brittle nails treatment.
Apply a mixture of a capsule of vitamin E oil and ¼ teaspoon warm olive oil to the strengthen brittle nails.
Prepare a scrub to harden nails by mixing a teaspoon of honey, a tablespoon each of olive oil and castor oil and ½ cup shelled, ground walnuts. Apply this paste to the hands, fingernails, toenails and feet and gently scrub them. Rinse off with lukewarm water and repeat twice a week.
Apply a thick layer of milk cream or petroleum jelly to your hands and fingernails and slip on cotton gloves before going out to best keep them moisturized.